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The clinicopathologic characteristics of orofacial aspergillosis in thirteen hospitalized patients who developed the infection while receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia are described. Clinically, the primary sites of infection, in decreasing order of frequency, were the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, mouth, and facial skin; the corresponding order for the secondary sites was orbit, nasal cavity, facial skin, and mouth. Pathologically, the fungal lesions in the nasal, oral and sinusoidal cavities were black, ulcerated, and escharotic due as a direct result of tissue destruction by the organism and an indirect result of thrombotic vascular infarction. The orbital lesions were deep red, granulomatous, and productive of proptosis and ectropion. Seven of the thirteen patients had concomitant pulmonary aspergillosis. The orofacial infections were not responsive to antifungal therapy in the absence of remission of the leukemia and restoration of depressed host defenses. In two patients who did achieve remission, the aspergillosis was controlled by the intravenous administration of amphotericin B.
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