Research Article| Volume 59, ISSUE 1, P82-87, January 1985

A comparison of the sealing properties of different retrograde techniques: An autoradiographic study

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in vitro with a lateral condensation of gutta-percha with sealer. Following obturation, the tooth apices were treated by various retrograde procedures. The teeth were then coated with ethyl acetate, immersed in 45Ca solution, washed, and sectioned, and autoradiographs were used to compare the leakage of the various techniques. Statistical analysis indicated that lateral condensation produced a significantly better seal than any retrograde technique tested except retrofilling with Super EBA cement and that a significantly worse seal was obtained with amalgam retrofill when compared to all retrograde techniques except cold-burnished gutta-percha following apicoectomy. No significant difference existed between other group combinations.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


        • Ingle JI
        • Beveridge EE
        in: Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia1976: 638
        • Farrar J
        Radical and heroic treatment of alveolar abscess by amputation of roots of teeth, with description and application of the cantilever crown.
        Dent Cosmos. 1884; 26: 135
        • Rhein M
        Cure of acute and chronic alveolar abscess.
        Dent Items Interest. 1897; 19: 688
        • Everett FG
        • Waerhaug J
        • Widman L
        Surgical treatment of pyorrhea alveolaris.
        J Periodontol. 1971; 42: 571
        • Widman L
        Om operativ behandling av alveolar-pyorrhoe.
        Svensk Tandlak Tidskr. 1917; 10: 85
      1. (This is the 1917 published version of a lecture on Aug. 15, 1916; copy at Northwestern University Dental School library.)
        • Widman L
        The operative treatment of pyorrhea alveolaris; a new surgical method (literal English translation of reference 5; identical illustrations).
        Svensk Tandlak Tidskr (foreign issue). December, 1918; (Copy at Northwestern University Dental School library)
        • Garvin MH
        Foci of infection in relation to nonvital teeth.
        J Natl Dent Assoc. 1919; 6: 195
        • Nord PG
        Retrograde retrofilling with Cavit: a clinical and roentgenological study.
        Svensk Tandlak Tidskr. 1970; 63: 261
        • Nicholls E
        Retrograde filling of the root canal.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1962; 15: 463
        • Mosby EL
        • Tracy Jr, NM
        Injection obturation in surgical endodontics.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1974; 37: 451
        • Curson I
        Endodontic techniques—apical surgery.
        Br Dent J. 1966; 121: 470
        • Kopp WK
        • Kresberg H
        Apicoectomy with retrograde gold foil in a new technique.
        N Y Dent J. 1973; 39: 8
        • McLean JW
        A five year case history of a polycarboxylate cement root filling.
        J Br Endod Soc. 1971; 5: 20
        • Sommer RF
        • Ostrander FD
        • Crowley MC
        Clinical endodontics.
        in: ed. 2. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1961: 430-441
        • Cunningham J
        The seal of root fillings at apicoectomy: a scanning electron microscope study.
        Br Dent J. 1975; 139: 430
        • Moore JR
        • Gilbe G
        Oral surgery procedures for general practice.
        Br Dent J. 1969; 126: 132
        • Oynick J
        • Oynick T
        A study of a new material for retrograde fillings.
        J Endod. 1978; 4: 203
        • Herd JR
        Apicoectomy! Why?.
        Aust Dent J. 1968; 13: 57
        • Matsura SJ
        A simplified root-end filling technique.
        J Mich State Dent Soc. 1962; 44: 40
        • Luks SJ
        Root-end amalgam technique in the practice of endodontics.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1956; 53: 424
        • Messing JJ
        Obliteration of the apical third of the root canal with amalgam.
        Br Dent J. 1958; 104: 125
        • Barry GN
        • Selbst AG
        • D'Anton EW
        • Madden RM
        Sealing quality of polycarboxylate cements when compared to amalgam as retrofilling material.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1976; 42: 109
        • Barry GN
        • Heyman RA
        • Elias A
        Comparison of apical sealing methods; a preliminary report.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1975; 39: 806
        • Delivanis P
        • Tabibi A
        A comparative sealability study of different retrofilling materials.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1978; 45: 273
        • Finne K
        • Nord PG
        • Persson G
        • Lennartsson B
        Retrograde root filling with amalgam and Cavit.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1977; 43: 621
        • Persson G
        • Lennartsson B
        • Lundstrom I
        Results of retrograde root-filling with special reference to amalgam and Cavit as root-filling materials.
        Svensk Tandlak Tidskr. 1974; 67: 123
        • Flander DH
        • James GA
        • Burch B
        • Dockum N
        Comparative histopathologic study of zinc-free amalgam and Cavit in connective tissue of the rat.
        J Endod. 1975; 1: 56
        • Marshall FJ
        • Massler M
        The sealing of pulpless teeth evaluated with radioisotopes.
        J Dent Med. 1961; 16: 172
        • Marcotte LR
        • Dowson J
        • Rowe NH
        Apical healing with retrofilling materials amalgam and gutta-percha.
        J Endod. 1975; 1: 63
        • Orr Jr, J
        Simplified retrograde endodontics.
        J Missouri Dent Assoc. 1971; 51: 7
        • Boulger E
        The foreign body reaction of rat tissue and human tissue to gutta percha.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1933; 20: 1473
        • Kwan EH
        • Harrington GW
        The effect of immediate post preparation on apical seal.
        J Endod. 1981; 7: 325
        • Phillips RW
        Skinner's science of dental materials.
        in: ed. 7. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1973: 302-303
        • Omnell KA
        Electrolytic precipitation of zinc carbonate in the jaw: an unusual complication after root resection.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1959; 12: 846
        • Brauer GM
        • McLaughlin R
        • Huget E
        Aluminum oxide as a reinforcing agent for zinc oxide-eugenol EBA cements.
        J Dent Res. 1968; 47: 622
      2. Stanford W (Secretary, American Dental Association Council on Dental Materials, Instruments, and Equipment): Personal communication.

        • Civjan S
        • Brauer GM
        Physical properties of cements, based on zinc oxide, hydrogenated resin, o-ethoxybenzoic acid, and eugenol.
        J Dent Res. 1964; 43: 281
        • Phillips RW
        • Love DR
        The effect of certain additive agents on the physical properties of zinc oxide-eugenol mixtures.
        J Dent Res. 1961; 40: 294
        • Tanzilli JP
        • Raphael D
        • Moodnik RM
        A comparison of the marginal adaptation of retrograde techniques: a scanning electron microscope study.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1980; 50: 74
        • Marosky JE
        Marginal leakage of temporary sealing materials used between endodontic appointments and assessed by 45Ca: an in vitro study.
        J Endod. 1977; 3: 110
        • Higgenbotham TL
        A comparative study of the physical properties of five commonly used root canal sealers.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1967; 24: 89
        • Going R
        • Massler M
        • Dute H
        Marginal penetration of dental restorations by different radioactive isotopes.
        J Dent Res. 1960; 39: 273
        • Allison D
        • Weber C
        • Walton R
        The influence of the method of canal preparation on the quality of apical and coronal obturation.
        J Endod. 1979; 5: 298
        • King KT
        The influence of two methods of canal preparation on the quality of the apical seal.
        University of Illinois, 1981
        • Roitt IM
        Essential immunology.
        ed. 3. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford1977