Oral Medicine| Volume 92, ISSUE 3, P276-280, September 2001

Oral symptoms at menopause—the role of hormone replacement therapy


      Objective: A questionnaire was used to investigate the prevalence of self-assessed sensations of painful mouth (PM) and dry mouth (DM) in menopause-aged women. Special attention was paid to the association of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with oral symptoms. Our hypothesis was that women using HRT have fewer oral symptoms than those who do not use HRT. Study Design: Patients were selected from among 50- to 58-year-old women attending a communal mammography screening program in Helsinki, Finland. Every fifth woman was offered a structured questionnaire. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 3173 women (response rate, 65%). Of the total sample, 46.8% (n = 1486) used HRT. The occurrence of PM was 8.2% (n = 259) and DM, 19.9% (n = 631). Climacteric symptoms were reported by 24% (n = 761) of the total sample and by 19.2% (n = 285) of the HRT users. According to logistic regression analyses, climacteric symptoms were found to be predictive of PM (P =.000) and DM (P =.000). The use of HRT also increased the occurrence of PM (P =.03). However, as a single covariate in our statistical model, the use of HRT was not a predictor of PM. The use of HRT also did not correlate with the occurrence of DM. Conclusions: The occurrence of PM and of DM seemed to be associated with climacteric symptoms in general, and the use of HRT did not prevent the oral symptoms studied. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;92:276-80)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


        • Lamey PJ
        • Lamb AB
        Prospective study of aetiological factors in burning mouth syndrome.
        Br Med J. 1988; 296: 1243-1246
        • Svensson P
        • Kaaber S.
        General health factors and denture function in patients with burning mouth syndrome and matched control subjects.
        J Oral Rehabil. 1995; 22: 887-895
        • Meurman JH
        • Rantonen P.
        Salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and yeast counts in 187 consecutive adult patients from Kuopio, Finland.
        Scand J Dent Res. 1994; 102: 227-234
        • Basker RM
        • Sturdee DW
        • Davenport JC
        Patients with burning mouths. A clinical investigation of causative factors, including the climacteric and diabetes.
        Br Dent J. 1978; 145: 9-16
        • Bergdahl M
        • Bergdahl J.
        Burning mouth syndrome: prevalence and associated factors.
        J Oral Pathol Med. 1999; 28: 350-354
        • Wardrop RW
        • Hailes J
        • Burger H
        • Reade PC
        Oral discomfort at menopause.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1989; 67: 535-540
        • Hakeberg M
        • Berggren U
        • Hägglin C
        • Ahlqwist M.
        Reported burning mouth symptoms among middle-aged and elderly women.
        Eur J Oral Sci. 1997; 105: 539-543
        • Locker D
        • Grushka M.
        Prevalence of oral and facial pain and discomfort: preliminary results of a mail survey.
        Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1987; 15: 169-172
        • Lipton JA
        • Ship JA
        • Larach-Robinson D.
        Estimated prevalence and distribution of reported orofacial pain in the United States.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1993; 124: 115-121
        • Tammiala-Salonen T
        • Hiidenkari T
        • Parvinen T.
        Burning mouth in a Finnish adult population.
        Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993; 21: 67-71
        • Maresky LS
        • van der Bijl P
        • Gird I.
        Burning mouth syndrome. Evaluation of multiple variables among 85 patients.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993; 75: 303-307
        • Forabosco A
        • Criscuolo M
        • Coukos G
        • Uccelli E
        • Weinstein R
        • Spinato S
        • et al.
        Efficacy of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with oral discomfort.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992; 73: 570-574
        • Ship JA
        • Patton LL
        • Tylenda CA
        An assessment of salivary function in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal females.
        J Gerontol. 1991; 46: M11-M15
        • Brace M
        • McCauley E.
        Oestrogens and psychological well-being.
        Ann Med. 1997; 29: 283-290
        • Greene W.
        LIMDEP 6.0.
        Econometric Software Inc, Belport, NY1992
        • Massler M.
        Oral manifestations during the female climacteric (the postmenopausal syndrome).
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1951; 4: 1234-1243
        • Topo P
        • Klaukka T
        • Hemminki E
        • Uutela A.
        Use of hormone replacement therapy in 1976-89 by 45-64-year-old Finnish women.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991; 45: 277-280
        • Vihtamäki T
        • Savilahti R
        • Tuimala R.
        Why do postmenopausal women discontinue hormone replacement therapy?.
        Maturitas. 1999; 33: 99-105
        • Gorsky M
        • Silverman Jr, S
        • Chinn H.
        Burning mouth syndrome: a review of 98 cases.
        J Oral Med. 1987; 42: 7-9
        • Ziskin DE
        • Moulton R.
        Glossodynia: A study of idiopathic orolingual pain.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1946; 33: 1422-1432
        • Grushka M.
        Clinical features of burning mouth syndrome.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987; 63: 30-36