Joint hypermobility and disk displacement confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging: A study of women with temporomandibular disorders


      The objective of this study was to test whether or not there is an association between generalized joint hypermobility (measured using the Beighton score) and temporomandibular joint disk displacement in women who had sought medical attention for temporomandibular disorders (TMD).

      Study design

      We studied 66 women who were attending the clinic for TMD. The patients were examined for joint hypermobility, and Beighton scores were calculated. When it was suspected that a patient suffered arthropathic complaints, magnetic resonance imaging of both temporomandibular joints was performed with the mouth closed and at maximal opening. The Pearson chi-squared test was used to test for an association between generalized joint hypermobility and disk displacement.


      We were unable to confirm the existence of an association between generalized joint hypermobility and temporomandibular joint disk displacement in women (χ2 = 1.523; P = .02).


      Generalized joint hypermobility may be a factor related to TMD, but we did not find an association between generalized joint hypermobility and anterior disk displacement in women.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment


        • Okeson J.P.
        Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997; 83: 61-64
        • Buckingham R.B.
        • Braun T.
        • Harinstein D.A.
        • Oral K.
        • Bauman D.
        • Bartynski W.
        • et al.
        Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome: a close association with generalized joint laxity (the hypermobile joint syndrome).
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1991; 72: 514-519
        • Westling L.
        Craniomandibular disorders and general joint mobility.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1989; 47: 293-299
        • Westling L.
        Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and generalized joint laxity.
        Swed Dent J. 1992; 81: 1-79
        • Harinstein D.
        • Buckingham R.B.
        • Braun T.
        • Oral K.
        • Bauman D.H.
        • Killian P.J.
        • Bidula L.P.
        Generalized joint laxity (the hypermobile joint syndrome) is associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1988; 31: 1259-1264
        • Kavuncu V.
        • Sahin S.
        • Kamanli A.
        • Karan A.
        • Aksoy C.
        The role of generalized hypermobility and condylar hypermobility in temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome.
        Rheumatol Int. 2006; 26: 257-260
        • Beighton P.
        • Graham R.
        • Bird H.
        Hypermobility of joints.
        2nd ed. Springer Verlag, London1989
        • Carter C.
        • Wilkinson J.
        Persistent joint laxity and congenital dislocation of the hip.
        J Bone Joint Surg. 1964; 46: 40-45
        • Beighton P.
        • Horan F.
        Orthopaedic aspects of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
        J Bone Joint Surg. 1969; 51: 444-453
        • Grahame R.
        • Jenkins J.M.
        Joint hypermobility asset or liability?.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 1972; 31: 109-111
        • Beighton P.
        • Solomon L.
        • Soskolne C.L.
        Articular mobility in an African population.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 1973; 32: 413-418
        • Hasija R.P.
        • Khubchandani R.P.
        • Shenoi S.
        Joint hypermobility in Indian children.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008; 26: 146-150
        • Al-Rawi Z.S.
        • Al-Aszawi A.J.
        • Al-Chalabi T.
        Joint mobility among university students in Iraq.
        Br J Rheumatol. 1985; 24: 26-31
        • Larsson L.G.
        • Baum J.
        • Mudholkar G.S.
        Hypermobility: features and differential incidence between the sexes.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1987; 30: 1426-1430
        • Wordsworth P.
        • Ogilvie D.
        • Smith R.
        • Sykes B.
        Joint mobility with particular reference to racial variation and inherited connective tissue disorders.
        Br J Rheumatol. 1987; 26: 9-12
        • Remvig L.
        • Jensen D.V.
        • Ward R.C.
        Epidemiology of general joint hypermobility and basis for the proposed criteria for benign joint hypermobility syndrome: review of the literature.
        J Rheumatol. 2007; 34: 804-809
        • Dworkin S.F.
        • LeResche L.
        Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: review, criteria, examinations and specifications, critique.
        J Craniomandib Disord. 1992; 6: 301-355
        • Dijkstra P.U.
        • Kropmans T.J.B.
        • Stegenga B.
        The association between generalized joint hypermobility and temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review.
        J Dent Res. 2002; 81: 158-163
        • Winocur E.
        • Gavish A.
        • Halachmi M.
        • Bloom A.
        • Gazit E.
        Generalized joint laxity and its relation with oral habits and temporomandibular disorders in adolescent girls.
        Oral Rehabil. 2000; 27: 614-622