Original Article| Volume 130, ISSUE 6, P667-674, December 2020

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Novel oral biomarkers predicting oral malodor

Published:October 17, 2020DOI:


      We sought new markers to predict oral malodor.

      Study Design

      Seventy-five adults complaining of oral malodor were classified into 3 groups clinically: no oral malodor, physiologic oral malodor, and periodontitis-derived oral malodor. In addition to conventional clinical parameters, 7 salivary components, occlusal force, and lip-closing force were compared among the groups.


      Concerning the salivary components, cariogenic bacteria, occult blood, leukocytes, and ammonia differed significantly among the groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that tongue-coating scores and ammonia levels were significantly associated with genuine oral malodor, including physiologic oral malodor and periodontitis-derived oral malodor, and the tongue-coating score, plaque index, and occult blood level were significantly associated with periodontitis-derived oral malodor. Occlusal force and lip-closing force did not differ among the groups. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between occlusal force and lip-closing force in oral malodor in women (P = .019).


      Novel salivary markers, ammonia levels, and occult blood levels may predict genuine oral malodor and periodontitis-derived oral malodor, respectively. An interaction effect between occlusal force and lip-closing force on oral malodor was identified in women.
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