Original Article| Volume 135, ISSUE 3, P355-362, March 2023

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Effectiveness and safety of percutaneous sclerotherapy using absolute ethanol and/or polidocanol for maxillofacial venous malformations involving the masticatory muscles: A case series


      This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous sclerotherapy for maxillofacial venous malformations.

      Study Design

      Patients who had venous malformations involving the masticatory muscles and who underwent sclerotherapy were enrolled in this retrospective study.


      Twenty-four patients (13 female, 11 male; mean age 21 years) were analyzed. Major clinical symptoms were swelling (100%) and intralesional pain (54%). Intramuscular lesions involved the masseter muscle only in 38% of cases, both the masseter and temporalis muscles in 33%, all masticatory muscles in 21%, and the temporalis muscle only in 8%. Extramuscular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Absolute ethanol and polidocanol were used as sclerosants. The mean number of sclerotherapy sessions per patient was 6.6 (range, 1-32). The mean follow-up duration after the first sclerotherapy session was 64.8 months (range, 6-178). The complications included paralysis of the facial nerve (25%), intraoral ulceration (8%), and hemoglobinuria (8%). The effectiveness of treatment was rated as excellent in 33% of cases, good in 46%, and fair in 21%. Better results were obtained in patients without extramuscular involvement.


      Percutaneous sclerotherapy can be effective and safe for maxillofacial intramuscular venous malformations, especially for localized lesions of the masseter muscle.
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