Patient-reported outcome measures for individuals with temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review and evaluation

Published:August 11, 2022DOI:


      We used consensus-based, systematic protocols to evaluate the reliability and validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for use in documenting treatment outcomes for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).

      Study Design

      Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we conducted a focused search of 5 literature databases resulting in a yield of 445 articles that qualified for full-text review. Our review identified 124 PROMs, from which we selected 19 directly related to symptoms of TMD including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function.


      We abstracted data on 9 Consensus-based Standards of the selection of health Measurements INstruments (COSMIN) measurement properties and analyzed these data according to COSMIN criteria. Only 3 PROMs provided evidence for at least half of the COSMIN properties: Eight-item Jaw Function Limitations Scale, Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)–TMD (OHIP-TMD), and TMJ Ankylosis Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Only the OHIP-TMD provided evidence for properties essential to evaluating change over time: reliability, measurement error, and responsiveness.


      We believe these results can alert clinical practitioners to gaps in our knowledge about the most widely used PROMs in TMD practice, and identify topics requiring further study for clinical researchers.
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