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The effect of electronic cigarette use on peri-implant conditions in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Published:August 31, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2022.08.010

      Objective

      To systematically review the effect of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on clinical, radiographic, and immunologic peri-implant parameters in males.

      Study Design

      A comprehensive search of indexed databases was conducted to identify studies reporting data on both e-cigarette users and nonsmokers with implant-supported prosthesis with ≥1-year in function, up to May 2022. Marginal bone loss (MBL), probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Peri-implant sulcular fluid volume (PISF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-β) levels were also assessed. A meta-analysis was performed using random-effect models to determine the effect of e-cigarette use in primary and secondary outcomes.

      Results

      Four cross-sectional studies were included with a total of 327 participants (165 e-cigarette users and 162 nonsmokers). All studies showed greater MBL, PI, PD, and lower BOP in e-cigarette users compared with never smokers. The meta-analysis indicated significant heterogeneity for all outcomes except MBL for distal implant surfaces, with the mean difference between e-cigarette users and nonsmokers of 0.89 mm (95% CI: 0.67-1.11, P < .01). The PISF volume, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels were increased in e-cigarette users (P < .01) with no heterogeneity present between studies.

      Conclusions

      E-cigarette use shows a negative effect on clinical, radiographic, and immunologic parameters of dental implants.
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