Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery| Volume 135, ISSUE 5, P573-580, May 2023

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Surgeon and advocate: identifying intimate partner violence from craniomaxillofacial injuries

Published:August 30, 2022DOI:


      Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a preventable public health crisis for over 20 years. Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries are exceedingly common among victims of IPV. The objective of this study was to determine whether assault due to IPV is different than other types of assault.

      Study Design

      A retrospective cohort study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data sets from 2016 to 2018. Additionally, the case control was matched for age, sex, and race for patients within the initial sample of assault patients (n = 52,632).


      Our final study sample consisted of 1,114 patients. Patients with IPV were less likely to have concussions (1.7 vs 3.6%; P < .01) and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages (2.1 vs 4.1%; P < .01), but more likely to have diffuse traumatic brain injuries (26.1 vs 18.7%; P < .01). Patients with IPV were less likely to have schizoaffective disorder (1.5 vs 2.8%; P < .05) but were more likely to have depressive episodes (19.8 vs 13.6%; P < .01), major depressive disorder (10.7 vs 5.3%; P < .01), and adjustment disorder (4.8 vs 2.2%; P < .01).


      We found that victims of IPV would be more likely to be female, delay care, have a mental health diagnosis, and present with worse intracranial injuries than other forms of assault. We hope our study informs and empowers maxillofacial surgeons to be a vigilant member of the interdisciplinary team.
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