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Immunohistochemical comparative analysis of tumor stem cell biomarkers in pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

  • André Azevedo dos Santos
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: André Azevedo dos Santos Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Dentistry Department - Oral Pathology Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 1787, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59056-000 Natal, RN, Brasil Phone/Fax: +55 84 3215-4132
    Affiliations
    Dentistry Sciences Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
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  • Rodrigo Porpino Mafra
    Affiliations
    Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
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  • Leorik Pereira da Silva
    Affiliations
    Professor, Oral Histopathology Service, Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, Brazil.
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  • Leão Pereira Pinto
    Affiliations
    Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)
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  • Roseana de Almeida Freitas
    Affiliations
    Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)
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  • Lélia Batista de Souza
    Affiliations
    Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Professor, Oral Pathology Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Researcher at the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)
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Published:September 29, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2022.09.038

      ABSTRACT

      Objective: This study aimed to compare the immunoexpression profile of tumor stem cell (TSC) biomarkers CD44, ALDH1, OCT4, and SOX2 in salivary gland tumors (SGTs).
      Study design: Sixty tissue specimens of salivary gland tumors (SGTs), including 20 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), 20 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), and 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), in addition to 4 samples of normal glandular tissue, were subjected to immunohistochemistry. The expression of the biomarkers in the parenchyma and stroma was evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric tests (P<.05).
      Results: Higher parenchymal expression of ALDH1, OCT4, and SOX2 was observed in PAs, ACCs, and MECs, respectively. Most ACCs did not express ALDH1. Higher immunoexpression of ALDH1 in major SGTs (P=.021) and of OCT4 in minor SGTs (P=.011) was found. Immunoexpression of SOX2 was related to lesions without myoepithelial differentiation (P<.001) and malignant behavior (P=.002). Furthermore, OCT4 was related to myoepithelial differentiation (P=.009). CD44 expression was related to a better prognosis. Stromal immunoexpressions of CD44, ALDH1, and OCT4 were higher in malignant SGTs.
      Conclusions: Our findings suggest the participation of TSCs in the pathogenesis of SGTs. We emphasize the need for further investigations into the presence and role of TSCs in the stroma of these lesions.

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