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The use and presentation of statistical assessments in oral and maxillofacial radiology research: Red flags and essentials. Part 1

Published:December 30, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2022.12.014
      Statistics has advanced considerably since the term “statistical significance” became popular in the 1920s, when Ronald Fisher created threshold-value tables for P<0.05 and P<0.01.
      • Kennedy-Shaffer L.
      Before p < 0.05 to Beyond p < 0.05: Using History to Contextualize p-Values and Significance Testing.
      The popularity of these tables led to these thresholds becoming established conventions; however, there are problems associated with these arbitrary thresholds. “P values are a way of reporting the results of statistical tests, but they do not define the practical importance of the results.”
      • Bailar JC
      • Mosteller F.
      Medical Uses of Statistics.
      In recent decades, P values in research have become rampant. A 3-year review of 18 psychology and neurology journal articles found 30,000 P values,
      • Szucs D
      • Ioannidis JP.
      Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature.
      and in 2015, Basic and Applied Social Psychology announced that the journal would not publish papers containing P values because the statistics were often used to support lower-quality research.
      • Trafimow D
      • Marks M.
      Editorial in basic and applied social pschology.
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