Original Article|Articles in Press

Magnetic resonance imaging and fractal analysis findings in temporomandibular joints with disk perforation

Published:January 09, 2023DOI:


      This study compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and fractal dimension (FD) values in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of study patients with disk perforation vs control patients.

      Study Design

      Of 75 TMJs examined with MRI for characteristics of the disk and condyle, 45 were included in the study group and 30 in the control group. MRI findings and FD values were compared for significance of differences between the groups. The frequency of subclassifications was analyzed for differences between the two forms of disk configuration and grades of effusion. Mean FD values were analyzed for differences among subclassifications of MRI findings and between groups.


      Examination of MRI variables revealed that the study group had significantly greater frequencies of flattened disks, disk displacement, flattening and combined defects in condylar morphology, and grade 2 effusion (P = .001) Joints with perforated disks had a large percentage of normal disk-condyle relationships (73.3%). Significant differences were discovered between biconcave and flattened disk configuration in the frequencies of internal disk status and condylar morphology. FD values of all patients varied significantly among the subclassifications of disk configuration, internal disk status, and effusion. Mean FD values were significantly lower in the study group with perforated disks (1.07) compared with the control group (1.20, P = .001).


      MRI variables and FD can be useful in investigating intra-articular TMJ status.


      MRI (Magnetic resonance image), FD (Fractal dimension), TMJ (Temporomandibular joint), TMJOA (TMJ osteoarthritis), T1W1 (T1-weighted image), PDW1 (Proton density-weighted image), T2W1 (T2-weighted image), FA (Fractal analysis), PRs (panoramic radiographs), DDWR (Disk displacement with reduction), DDWOR (Disk displacement without reduction)
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